Concrete frame structures are probably the most common type of modern building all over the world. As the name implies, this kind of building construction system comprise of a skeleton or frame of concrete. The horizontal members of this structure are called beams, while the vertical ones are called columns. Construction workers typically walk of flat planes made of concrete called slabs. The most important part here is the column, as it is the main part of the building that carries the load. If a building slab or beam will get damages, the floor area will be the only one affected, but if the column will be damaged, the entire building could go down.
Steel Frame Structures
Majority of steel construction uses a type of steel known as mild steel. This steel is a material that is extremely strong. This enormous strength is a great benefit for the building. Another essential feature of steel is how flexible it is. It can be bent without ever cracking, which is another great advantage especially during earthquake, where a steel building can flex when pushed to one side. Another characteristic of steel is its ductility or malleability. A steel building will not immediately crack when subjected to a massive force; instead it will slowly bend out of shape. In most cases, steel is far better in earthquake scenarios than almost all materials and steel structures rarely collapse.
Wood Frame Structures
Wood frame construction is one of the most well-known forms of building methods for homes in the United States and some parts of Europe. It is not heavy, and allows fast construction without the need to use heavy tools or equipment; it can adapt itself to any geometric shape and there are a wide range of systems and products suitable for this kind of construction. However, it is fire hazard since it is made of wood and not sturdy enough to resist hurricanes and tornadoes.
Load Bearing Masonry Wall Structure
Load bearing masonry wall structure construction was the most commonly used type of construction for huge buildings from the 1700s to the mid-1900s. It is very seldom used today for huge building structures, but smaller residential-scale structures are being built. It basically consists of thick, heavy masonry walls of brick or stone that support the entire building, as well as the horizontal floor slabs, which could be made of reinforced concrete, wood, or steel members. In contrast, most construction today is not load-bearing masonry but frame structures of light but robust materials that support floor slabs and have very thin and light internal and external walls.
Pre-engineered Building Structure
Pre-engineered buildings are factory-built structures of steel that are delivered to site and bolted together. What differentiates them from other structures is that the contractor also designs the building – a practice called design & build. This style of construction is ideally fitted to industrial buildings and warehouses; it is not costly, very quick to erect, and can also be taken down to pieces and moved to another site – more on that later. These structures are sometimes called ‘metal boxes’ or ‘tin sheds’ by laymen – they are essentially rectangular boxes enclosed in a skin of corrugated metal sheeting.